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Home > Our Work > Events > 2014 Singapore–US Strategic Dialogue on Biosecurity II

Singapore-US Strategic Dialogue on Biosecurity

Professional Biographies of Meeting Participants

Kenneth BERNARD | Mely CABALLERO-ANTHONY | W. Seth CARUS | CHONG Chee Kheong | Teck-Mean CHUA | Anita CICERO | Julie E. FISCHER | Gigi GRONVALL | Peter HO | Derek HO Yeong Thye | William P. HOSTYN | Noreen HYNES | Tom INGLESBY | Barbara JOHNSON | KWA Chong Guan | James W. LE DUC | LEE Fook Kay | Vernon LEE | Michael S. MALLEY | NG Lee Ching | Ambassador ONG Keng Yong | OOI Peng Lim Steven | Tikki Elka PANGESTU | Sanjana RAVI | Daniel TJEN | Viji VIJAYAN | Linfa WANG | Annelies WILDER-SMITH


Rear Admiral Kenneth Bernard (USPHS, Ret.) served at the White House from 2002 to 2005 as Special Assistant to the President for Biodefense and as Assistant Surgeon General. From 2001 to 2003 he was head of the US delegation negotiating the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. From 1998 to 2001 he was Senior Adviser for Security and Health on President Clinton’s National Security Council staff. His other positions have included Senior Political Adviser to the Director-General of the World Health Organization (2005-2007); Senior Adviser for Security, Defense and Intelligence to Health Secretary Tommy Thompson; International Health Attaché at the US Mission to the UN in Geneva; Associate Director for Medical and Scientific Affairs in the Office of International Health, Department of Health and Human Services; and International Health Policy Adviser to the Director of the US Peace Corps. Early in his career, he spent 3 years as a medical epidemiologist at the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta, Georgia.

Dr. Bernard has an MD from the University of California, Davis, a DTM&H from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, is board certified in internal medicine, and is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.



Mely Caballero-Anthony is Associate Professor and Head of the Centre for Non-Traditional Security (NTS) Studies at the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS), Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Until May 2012, she served as Director of External Relations at the ASEAN Secretariat. She also currently serves on the UN Secretary-General’s Advisory Board on Disarmament Matters and Security and is a member of the World Economic Forum (WEF) Global Agenda Council on Conflict Prevention.

Prof. Anthony’s research interests include regionalism and regional security in the Asia-Pacific, multilateral security cooperation, politics and international relations in ASEAN, conflict prevention and management, and human security. She was the principal investigator of the MacArthur Asia Security Initiative (ASI) project of Internal Security Challenges in Asia and Cross-Border Implications. She has published extensively in peer-reviewed journals on a broad range of security issues in the Asia-Pacific. 


W. Seth CARUS, PhD

Seth Carus is Distinguished Research Fellow at the Center for the Study of Weapons of Mass Destruction at the National Defense University. His research focuses on issues related to biological warfare, including threat assessment, biodefense, and the role of the Department of Defense in biodefense. He also studies the history of biological warfare and has written a working paper, Bioterrorism and Biocrimes: The Illicit Use of Biological Agents in the 20th Century, and several articles on allegations of biological agent use. From 2003 to 2013 he also served as the WMD Center’s Deputy Director.

From 2001 to 2003, Dr. Carus was detailed to the Office of the Vice President, where he was the Senior Advisor to the Vice President for Biodefense. Before assuming that position, he was on the staff of the National Preparedness Review, commissioned to recommend changes in homeland security organization and support the Office of Homeland Security while it was being established.

Prior to joining NDU, Dr. Carus was a research analyst at the Center for Naval Analyses. He worked on studies related to naval forward presence in the Persian Gulf and on the impact of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons on the conduct of a major regional contingency in Korea. From 1991 to 1994, Dr. Carus was a member of the policy planning staff, Undersecretary of Defense for Policy, Office of the Secretary of Defense. Before joining the government, he was a research fellow at the Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Dr. Carus has a PhD from Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland.


CHONG Chee Kheong, PhD, MPH

Dr. Chong has served as the Director of the Disease Control Division of the Malaysian Ministry of Health since 2011. He trained as a clinician and graduated in 1986 from Malaya University in Kuala Lumpur. He received his MPH in 1990 from Malaya University. From 1987 until 2000, Dr. Chong served as a District Medical Officer of Health for the Malaysian Ministry of Health. In 2000 he became a District Health and Hospital Director, and he served in this role until 2009, when he became the Director of the National Public Health Laboratory. In 2010, he became the Head of the Vector-Borne Disease Control Sector of the Ministry of Health.

Dr. Chong has been involved in numerous national, regional, and international conferences and committees. He currently serves as the Chairman of the National Immunization Action Committee, to which he was appointed 3 years ago, and he serves on the National Immunization Policy Committee. These committees discuss policy and other matters related to vaccines and vaccine-preventable diseases. Dr. Chong also serves on Malaysia’s Post Cabinet Committee, covering all issues related to health. Dr. Chong’s regional appointments include serving as Lead Country Representative to the ASEAN Partnership Laboratories (APL), which discusses laboratory-related issues across all ASEAN member states, as well as the ASEAN Expert Group on Communicable Diseases (AEGCD). Dr. Chong is a member of the Dengue Vaccine Initiative, an international consortium working to prepare for dengue vaccine introduction in endemic areas so that, once licensed, vaccines to prevent dengue will be swiftly adopted.


Teck-Mean CHUA, DMD

Dr. Chua is a consultant, Biorisk Management, at Temasek Laboratory. He has experience working for the World Health Organization and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations on laboratory capacity building in the Asia-Pacific region. Additionally, he serves as a laboratory consultant for the Temasek Life Science Laboratory of the National University of Singapore. He is the current treasurer and past president of the Asia-Pacific Biosafety Association.



Ms. Cicero is Chief Operating Office and Deputy Director of the UPMC Center for Health Security. Working with the CEO, she directs operations, strategic and budget planning, and program development for the UPMC Center for Health Security. Since joining the Center, she has expanded the Center’s efforts in epidemic preparedness, nuclear resilience, and international programs.

Ms. Cicero has authored or co-authored a number of widely cited articles and reports on biosecurity policy, pandemic preparedness, nuclear and radiological consequence management, biosurveillance, international disease surveillance, and public health law. In working to engage the Center in valuable new exchanges, Ms. Cicero launched a number of initiatives to improve mutual understanding and collaboration with countries including China, Kuwait, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Singapore, and Taiwan. 

Before joining the Center, Ms. Cicero spent nearly 2 decades as a practicing attorney in both the US federal government and the private sector. She was Managing Partner in charge of the Washington, DC, office of Drinker, Biddle & Reath, LLP, where she was responsible for more than 300 lawyers and staff. In her legal work, she created and managed a number of pharmaceutical consortia, with a particular focus on clinical research and regulatory compliance. Ms. Cicero’s work required constructive engagement with members of Congress; the World Health Organization; the European Commission; the US Food and Drug Administration; the US Departments of State, Defense, and Health and Human Services; and the Environmental Protection Agency.

Before entering private practice, Ms. Cicero focused on environmental litigation and counseling. She began her career as a trial attorney in the Honors Program at the US Department of Justice, Environmental Enforcement Section.

Ms. Cicero is a graduate of the Yale Law School and of Oberlin College.



Dr. Fischer co-directs a portfolio of research projects in global health security with Dr. Rebecca Katz at the George Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services, where she is currently an Associate Research Professor in the department of Health Policy.

From 2007 to 2012, Dr. Fischer directed the Stimson Center’s Global Health Security Program, exploring the tools, policies, and partnerships that strengthen global capacities for disease detection and response. Dr. Fischer is a former Council on Foreign Relations International Affairs Fellow and American Association for the Advancement of Science Congressional Fellow. As professional staff with the Senate Committee on Veterans’ Affairs, she worked on issues related to emergency medical preparedness and the consequences of biological, chemical, and radiological exposures during military service. She served as a senior research fellow at the University of Washington and Seattle Biomedical Research Institute and as a microbiologist with a Thai-US collaboration aimed at strengthening Thailand’s capacities to identify and control emerging infections of regional and global significance.

Dr. Fischer received a BA from Hollins University and a PhD in microbiology and immunology from Vanderbilt University.



Dr. Gronvall is a Senior Associate at the UPMC Center for Health Security and an Associate Professor of Medicine and Public Health at the University of Pittsburgh Schools of Medicine and Public Health. She is an immunologist whose work addresses the role of scientists in biosecurity: how they can diminish the threat of biological weapons and how they can contribute to an effective technical response against a biological weapon or a natural epidemic. 

Dr. Gronvall is author of the book Preparing for Bioterrorism: The Alfred P. Sloan Foundation’s Leadership in Biosecurity, which describes early gains in US efforts to confront the threat of bioterrorism, for a nontechnical audience, and she is currently working on a second book about the governance and risks of synthetic biology. She is Associate Editor of the journal Biosecurity and Bioterrorism, and she has published and lectured extensively on issues that affect scientists and the practice of science. Dr. Gronvall advises the Department of Defense (DoD) Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) as a member of the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee (TRAC). She has served as Science Advisor for the Commission on the Prevention of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism, has testified before Congress about the safety and security of high-containment biological laboratories in the United States, and has served on several task forces related to laboratory security. She has investigated and presented policy recommendations on the governance of science to the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) in Geneva, Switzerland (2003, 2005, and 2006), and she was selected to join the European Union Visitors Program in 2011, a competitive process designed to increase mutual understanding between professionals and future leaders from non-EU countries and their EU counterparts. She also participated in the Council on Foreign Relations Term Member Program from 2006 to 2011.

She is a founding member of the Center, and prior to joining the faculty in 2003, she worked at the Johns Hopkins University Center for Civilian Biodefense Strategies, which she joined in 2001. From 2000 to 2001 she was a National Research Council Postdoctoral Associate at the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) in Fort Detrick, Maryland.

Dr. Gronvall received a BS in biology from Indiana University, Bloomington. She subsequently worked as a protein chemist at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and received a PhD from Johns Hopkins University for work on T-cell receptor/MHC I interactions.


Peter HO, MA

Peter Ho Hak Ean is currently the Senior Advisor to the Centre for Strategic Futures. He is also a Senior Fellow in the Civil Service College. He is an Adjunct Professor with the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies and a Visiting Fellow at the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy. When he retired from the Singapore Administrative Service in 2010 after a career in public service of more than 34 years, he was Head, Civil Service, concurrent with his other appointments of Permanent Secretary (Foreign Affairs), Permanent Secretary (National Security and Intelligence Coordination), and Permanent Secretary (Special Duties) in the Prime Minister’s Office. Before that, he was Permanent Secretary (Defence).

Mr. Ho is Chairman of the Urban Redevelopment Authority, Chairman of the Singapore Centre on Environmental Life Sciences Engineering, Chairman of the Management Board of the Institute for Engineering Leadership, and Chairman of the Singapore Maritime Institute’s International Advisory Panel. He is a member of the National University Board of Trustees, a board member of the Lee Kuan Yew Exchange Fellowship, an advisor to the Lee Kuan Yew Centre for Innovative Cities, a member of Nanyang Technological University’s Complexity Advisory Board, a council member of the International Institute of Strategic Studies, and a Society Fellow of the Asia and the Pacific Policy Society. He is a Fellow of the Academy of Engineering Singapore and a member of Statoil’s Strategy Advisory Council and the McKinsey Center for Government Advisory Council. 


Derek HO Yeong Thye, MSc

Derek Ho Yeong Thye is Director-General Public Health, Environmental Public Health Division, National Environmental Agency, Singapore. Mr. Ho’s professional appointments also include Director, Environmental Health Department (EHD), NEA, Singapore; Director, 3P Network Division, Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources (MEWR), Singapore; and Head, North-West Regional Office (NWRO), NEA, Singapore.

Mr. Ho received an MSc in public health from Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland.


William P. HOSTYN, MS

William (Bill) P. Hostyn is the Director, Advisory Committees and Programs Office, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and STRATCOM Center for Combatting Weapons of Mass Destruction (DTRA/SCC-WMD). In this capacity, he is the senior Department of Defense (DoD) designated federal officer responsible for the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee (TRAC). TRAC provides the Secretary of Defense with independent advice and recommendations on reducing the risk to the United States, its military forces, and its allies and partners posed by nuclear, biological, chemical, and conventional threats. Additionally, he oversees DoD program management of the Project on Advanced Systems and Concepts for Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction; the Project on Nuclear Issues; the Emerging Leaders in Biosecurity Initiative; and the Nuclear Strategy Forum. 

Prior to his current assignment, Mr. Hostyn was the Chief, Systems and Engineering Division, in DTRA’s Advanced Systems and Concepts Office (ASCO). While assigned to ASCO, he oversaw the development and execution of technical projects and strategic international dialogues that cut across federal agencies for weapons of mass destruction (WMD) threat reduction in nuclear, chemical, biological and emerging requirements. He further maintained interagency liaison on programs, policy, and doctrinal issues and was a principal interface with think-tanks in the Washington, DC, area and the Naval Post Graduate School, Monterey, CA. He also served as Chief, Joint Military Personnel Division, with DTRA. Mr. Hostyn retired from the US Air Force in 2003 after more than 20 years of distinguished service. Having served on 3 major command staffs (Headquarters Tactical Air Command, Pacific Air Forces, and Air Force Space Command), he was primarily engaged in manpower and personnel force structure planning and execution of programs stemming from the Base Realignment and Closure Commission for installation-wide and unit level activation, inactivation, and conversions in missile, satellite, and fixed and rotary wing weapon systems. A graduate of the Air University Contingency Warfare Planning Course, he further worked with Joint Chief of Staff (JCS) contingency warfare planning while serving on the Air Component Staff, Headquarters Seventh Air Force, Osan Air Base, Republic of Korea.

Mr. Hostyn has a BS in organizational management from Colorado Christian University, an MS in public administration from Troy State University, and an MS in national resources strategy with a minor as a national security professional from the National Defense University, Industrial College of the Armed Forces.



Dr. Hynes has more than 40 years of medical and public health experience in both international and domestic settings. She is a physician trained in internal medicine, infectious diseases, tropical medicine, and epidemiology.

In 2007 she transitioned from 30 years of government service, including having served as Deputy Assistant Secretary for Public Health Emergency Preparedness and the Director of the Office of Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures. She currently is a faculty member of both the Schools of Medicine and Public Health at Johns Hopkins University, where she directs the Geographic Medicine Center of the Division of Infectious Diseases. Her research focuses on tropical diseases and vaccine-preventable diseases.

In 2014 she was inaugurated as a member of the National Biodefense Science Board/National Preparedness and Response Science Board, which provides advice to the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response at the US Department of Health and Human Services.



Dr. Inglesby is Director of the UPMC Center for Health Security and Associate Professor of Medicine and Public Health at the University of Pittsburgh Schools of Medicine and Public Health. His work is internationally recognized in the fields of public health preparedness, pandemic flu and epidemic planning, and biosecurity. He is chair of the Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. He is co-chair of the National Health Security Preparedness Index initiative. 

Dr. Inglesby has been chair or a member of a number of National Academy of Sciences committees, and he has served in an advisory capacity to the Defense Science Board, the Departments of Health and Human Services and Homeland Security, and the National Institutes of Health. He has been invited to brief White House officials from the past 3 presidential administrations on national biosecurity challenges and priorities, and he has delivered Congressional testimony on public health preparedness and biosecurity. He is also on the Board of Directors of PurThread, a company dedicated to developing antimicrobial textiles.

During the past 15 years, Dr. Inglesby has authored or co-authored more than 80 peer-reviewed articles, reports, and commentaries on a wide range of issues related to health and security. He is Coeditor-in-Chief of the journal Biosecurity and Bioterrorism, and he was principal editor of the 2002 JAMA book Bioterrorism: Guidelines for Medical and Public Health Management. He is regularly consulted by major news outlets for his expertise.

Dr. Inglesby completed his internal medicine and infectious diseases training at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, where he also served as Assistant Chief of Service in 1996-97. He received his MD from Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons and his BA from Georgetown University. He continues to see patients in a weekly infectious disease clinic.


Barbara JOHNSON, PhD

Dr. Johnson is owner of the consulting company Biosafety Biosecurity International. She is a microbiologist with more than 20 years of experience as a senior scientist in the US government in the area of biosafety, biocontainment, and biosecurity. She provides training and consultation in the US and internationally on biorisk assessment, management, and mitigation; facility design, testing, certification, and construction for BSL/ABSL 2-4 and BSL-3 Ag; and development of compliance documentation in the form of manuals, SOPs, and site-specific risk assessments and NEPA documentation. 

Dr. Johnson’s technical and policy advice and strategies are requested in the US by various government agencies, companies, universities, subcommittees (ANSI, NRC-Life Sciences Board, Senate, NBBTP, etc.), and by international ministries of health.

Dr. Johnson is a registered biosafety professional, an approved facility certifier and trainer by the Singapore Ministry of Health, Past President of ABSA, founding member of IFBA, and Co-Editor of the peer-reviewed journal Applied Biosafety.


KWA Chong Guan, MA

Mr. Kwa works on the intersections of history, security studies, and international relations of Southeast Asia. As a Senior Fellow at the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies at the Nanyang Technological University, he works on a range of regional security issues with a focus on the implicit narratives underlying our framing of regional security. As Visiting Fellow at the Archaeological Unit of the Nalanda-Sriwijaya Centre at the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies and Adjunct Associate Professor in the History Department of the National University of Singapore, he is interested in the long cycles of Southeast Asian history. 

Mr. Kwa started his career working on policy analysis in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and then the Ministry of Defence before being assigned to reorganize the Oral History Department in the National Archives and, concurrently, the old National Museum. He continues to be associated with these heritage institutions in various advisory capacities and as Chairman of the National Archives Advisory Committee. He also chairs the National Library Advisory Committee. 


James W. LE DUC, PhD 

Dr. Le Duc is Director of the Galveston National Laboratory (GNL), the only full-suit Biological Safety Level 4 (BSL-4) laboratory in operation on an academic campus in the US. BSL-2, -3, and -4 laboratories of the GNL are approved by CDC and USDA to handle virtually all select agents. He is a Professor in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology in the School of Medicine at the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) in Galveston, Texas, and holds the John Sealy Distinguished University Chair in Tropical and Emerging Virology. 

Dr. Le Duc is the principal investigator for DoD grants supporting the National Biocontainment Training Center at UTMB. The Center provides hands-on training in biosafety and biosecurity to both faculty and students at UTMB and to national and international partners around the world. Under his direction, the Center has provided more than 5,000 training encounters to individuals in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and the US. 

Dr. Le Duc joined UTMB in 2006 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, where he was the Influenza Coordinator. He also served as Director, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases (2000-2005), coordinating research activities, prevention initiatives, and outbreak investigations for viral and rickettsial pathogens of global importance, including viral hemorrhagic fevers, influenza, and other respiratory infections, childhood viral diseases, and newly emerging diseases such as SARS and monkeypox. He served as the Associate Director for Global Health (1996-2000) in the Office of the Director, National Center for Infectious Diseases at CDC, where he formed the Amazon Basin and Southern Cone networks of public health experts to address emerging infectious diseases. As medical officer in charge of arboviruses and viral hemorrhagic fevers at the World Health Organization in Geneva (1992-1996), he was the architect of the WHO program to address emerging infectious diseases and began the process of revising the International Health Regulations. Dr. Le Duc also held leadership positions during a 23-year career as a US Army officer in the medical research and development command, with assignments in Brazil, Panama, and various locations in the US, including the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research and the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. His professional career began as a field biologist working with the Smithsonian Institution in West Africa.

He is a Fellow of the Infectious Diseases Society of America and a member of various professional organizations. He has published more than 200 scientific articles and book chapters and is well recognized as an expert in virus diseases, biodefense, and global health.


LEE Fook Kay, PhD

Dr. Lee is the Chief Science and Technology Officer (CSTO) of the Ministry of Home Affairs Singapore (MHA), where he reports directly to the Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Home Affairs, and the Permanent Secretary of Home Affairs. Dr. Lee’s office, the Office of the Chief Science and Technology Officer (OCSTO), is the science and technology authority in MHA and leads the ministry in all science- and technology-related issues and policies to support the ministry’s doctrine in policy formulation and decision making contributing to augment operations in homeland security.

Dr. Lee has more than 20 years of experience in the CBRE domain and is instrumental in the strategic building and development of CBRE capabilities in Singapore. He is a member of the Central College Advisory Committee of Institute of Technical Education in Singapore. Dr. Lee is also the appointed Singapore expert member in the IAEA Emergency Preparedness and Response Expert Group (EPREG). 

Dr. Lee started his career in 1989 as a Research Scientist at DSO National Laboratories, an affiliated organization under MINDEF, and has served as Head of Centre for Chemical Defence. He was Deputy Director of the Defence Medical and Environmental Institute at DSO, managing defense research and development in the areas of environmental protection, biomedical sciences, and human performance. He was concurrently the Director of the Chemical, Biological and Radiological Programme. In addition, Dr. Lee was also appointed by the Minister for Foreign Affairs as the Director of National Authority (Chemical Weapons Convention) from 2000 to 2007 and was instrumental in steering Singapore’s policy and implementation strategies in the domains of weapons of mass destruction treaties, like the Chemical Weapons Convention and Biological Weapons Convention. Today, he remains a key advisor in the national advisory board that oversees the strategic and policy issues in this area. In 2006, Dr Lee joined the Ministry of Home Affairs. Dr. Lee’s alliances range from technology institutes in CB defense to international organizations like the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the Expert Group for the Biological Weapons Convention, and the United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC).

Dr. Lee’s pioneering efforts in building Singapore’s CBRE defense research won him several awards, including the Defence Technology Prize. He was also conferred the credentials of Chartered Chemist by the Royal Society of Chemistry, as well as the Public Administration Medal (Silver) by the President of Singapore, conferred to him in 2009 for his valuable scientific contributions in the defense and homeland security domains. 



Dr. Lee is a preventive medicine physician and Head of the Singapore Armed Forces Biodefence Centre, in charge of preparedness, surveillance, and response to infectious diseases. He is also an adjunct Associate Professor at the Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, and an Advisor to the Public Health Group in the Ministry of Health, Singapore. Prior to his current appointment, he was Advisor to the Assistant Director General for Health, Security and Environment at the World Health Organization headquarters. 

Dr. Lee graduated from medical school at the National University of Singapore and is a Fellow of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore. He also holds a PhD in epidemiology from the Australian National University and MPH and MBA degrees from Johns Hopkins University.


Michael S. MALLEY, PhD

Michael S. Malley is a Lecturer in the Department of National Security Affairs and Executive Director of the Program on Advanced Systems and Concepts for Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction (PASCC) at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) in Monterey, California. A political scientist by training, he teaches courses in the fields of comparative politics and international relations, with a special focus on Southeast Asian politics and regional security.

His current research projects address nuclear security and nonproliferation in Southeast Asia, as well as multilateral approaches to security cooperation in the region. He has also written extensively on Indonesian politics, including the challenges of defense reform, decentralization, and climate change. Since 2009, he has conducted 3 workshops with Southeast Asian experts on nuclear energy and nonproliferation on behalf of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency.

Prior to joining NPS in 2004, Dr. Malley taught in the Political Science Department at Ohio University, where he also served as Associate Director of Southeast Asian Studies and taught in the Center for Contemporary History. He earned a doctorate in political science at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, a master’s degree in Southeast Asian studies from Cornell University, and a bachelor’s degree from Georgetown University’s School of Foreign Service. As part of these academic programs he also studied at the National University of Singapore and 2 Indonesian universities, Gadjah Mada University in Yogyakarta and IKIP in Malang.


NG Lee Ching, PhD

Dr Ng Lee Ching obtained her PhD in the Department of Microbiology at the National University of Singapore before doing a postdoctoral fellowship at Umea University, Sweden. She has more than 15 years of experience in molecular biology and microbiology, including 9 years committed to Biological Defence and Infectious Diseases at DSO National Laboratories and Defence Science and Technology Agency. Dr. Ng joined the National Environment Agency in December 2004 and is currently the Head of the Environmental Health Institute (EHI), which is the research arm in the Division of Public Health.


Ambassador ONG Keng Yong 

Ambassador Ong Keng Yong is the Executive Deputy Chairman of the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Nanyang Technological University, and Director of the School’s Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies. He was formerly the High Commissioner of Singapore to Malaysia. He was a Visiting Research Fellow at the Centre on Contemporary Central Asia, and the Caucasus, School of Oriental and African Studies, London in 2008.

From 1996 to 1998, Ambassador Ong was the High Commissioner of Singapore to India with concurrent accreditation to Nepal. He held diplomatic posts in Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, and the United States. From 1998 to 2002, he was Press Secretary to Singapore’s Prime Minister and held senior positions in the Ministry of Information, Communications and the Arts, and the People’s Association in Singapore. From 2003 to 2007, Ambassador Ong was the Secretary-General of ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) based in Jakarta, Indonesia. He was also the Non-Resident Ambassador of Singapore to Iran and Director of the Institute of Policy Studies, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore.

Ambassador Ong is the recipient of the Silver Public Administration Medal (1997), the Long Service Medal (2002), and the Meritorious Service Medal (2008) from Singapore; the Medal of Friendship from Laos (2007); and the Medal of Sahametrei from Cambodia (2007). He holds an LLB (Hon.) from University of Singapore and an MA in Arab studies from Georgetown University, Washington, DC.


OOI Peng Lim Steven, MBBS, MSc, MPH

Dr. Ooi graduated with an MBBS from the National University of Singapore in 1986 and obtained his postgraduate medical qualifications from the National University of Singapore in 1991 and Johns Hopkins University in 1994. As a public health practitioner, his interests are in urban outbreak epidemiology and emerging diseases of the built environment. Among his contributions, he has documented the epidemiology of sick building syndrome in the tropical setting and went on to develop the Singapore guidelines for good indoor air quality in office premises and regulations for the prevention and control of legionnaires’ disease. After SARS hit the city state in 2003, he received a commendation medal for his role in developing the national contact tracing centre and home quarantine operations. Dr. Ooi currently holds the position of Deputy Director in charge of disease control at the Ministry of Health, Singapore, and is an Adjunct Associate Professor in environmental health and epidemiology at the National University of Singapore. He is also a fellow of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore, and an elected member of Delta Omega, the US National Public Health Honor Society.


Tikki Elka PANGESTU, PhD

Professor Pangestu is presently Visiting Professor, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore. He was previously Director, Research Policy & Cooperation, World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva (1999-2012). Prior to joining WHO, he was Professor of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Postgraduate Studies & Research, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (1989-1999), and Lecturer/Associate Professor, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (1977-1989). 

Professor Pangestu has published more than 250 scientific articles and 12 books, and he was lead author on several major WHO reports including the World Health Report 2013: Research for Universal Health Coverage (2013), Knowledge for Better Health (2004), and Genomics and World Health (2002). His research interests are in epidemiology, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis and prevention of infectious diseases, dual-use research, genomics and global health, and in health research policy, health research systems, global health governance, best practices in research, development of research capabilities in developing countries, and linkages between research and policy.

He holds a PhD in immunology-microbiology from the Australian National University, Canberra, and he is a Fellow of the Royal College of Pathologists (UK), Institute of Biology (UK), American Academy of Microbiology (US), Academy of Medicine of Malaysia, and Academy of Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS). 


Sanjana RAVI, MPH

Ms. Ravi is an Analyst at the UPMC Center for Health Security. She serves as analyst manager for Center projects examining healthcare preparedness in the US, biosecurity policy, and the risks and societal impacts associated with synthetic biology research. She has previously contributed to projects exploring mass population displacement, nuclear emergency preparedness, and mobile health technologies. Ms. Ravi’s research interests include global health systems, infectious disease policy, and medical countermeasure delivery. In 2013, she served as a global impact fellow with Unite for Sight in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, delivering basic eye care to underserved regions. 

Ms. Ravi earned a BA in biology from Saint Louis University. She received an MPH in infectious disease management, intervention, and community practice from the Graduate School of Public Health at the University of Pittsburgh. As a graduate student, she contributed to research on nosocomial infections, community-based health education, and geriatric health. 


Daniel TJEN, MD, SpS

Major General TNI Daniel Tjen is Surgeon General, Indonesian National Armed Forces. Prior to this, General Tjen served as Chief Deputy of Military Regional Health III/Siliwangi; Chief of Department Neurologist in the Central Army Hospital; Chief of Military Regional Health III/Siliwangi; Deputy Director of Army Health; Chief Deputy of Surgeon General, Indonesia National Armed Forces; and Chief of Surgeon General, Indonesia National Armed Forces.

General Tjen is a neurologist and received his medical training at the University of Indonesia. His military education includes Spamilwa (Military Officer School) and Susjur Pa bedah lapangan (Vocational School Officer of Surgical field).



Dr. Vijayan currently holds a dual appointment in the Duke-NUS Graduate Medical Schools as the Director of Safety, Health and Emergency Management and Director Research Operations. She chairs the school’s safety and crisis management committee, which oversees all aspects of safety and emergency preparedness in the school. She ensures smooth operations of laboratories, oversees procurement and other aspects of research support, and prepares standard operating procedures for various aspects of safety. 

Previously, Dr. Vijayan worked in a colorectal cancer laboratory in Singapore General Hospital, where her projects involved cellular markers for early cancer detection. She later moved to KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, where she continued her research in the field of liver fibrosis and development of the biliary system. In 2001 she took on an administrative role in Singapore Health Services Pte Ltd (SingHealth), where she worked in the Office of Research providing administrative and operations support for research and where laboratory safety was one of her key responsibilities.

She is currently the President of the Biorisk Association of Singapore and serves on the Singapore Workforce Development Agency’s Biosafety Technical Committee to harmonize biosafety and biosecurity training in Singapore.


Linfa WANG, PhD

Prof. Wang is the Director of the program in Emerging Infectious Diseases at Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore. He also currently holds an appointment at the Office of Chief Executive (OCE) Science Leader at the CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory (AAHL).

Having completed his bachelor’s degree in 1982 at the East China Normal University, Shanghai China, Prof. Wang went on to obtain his PhD at the University of California, Davis. His early research was at the Monash Centre for Molecular Biology and Medicine. In 1990, he joined the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Australian Animal Health Laboratory (AAHL), where he played a leading role in identifying bats as the natural host of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus. Recently, he led an international team carrying out comparative genomic analysis of 2 bat species and discovered an important link between adaptation to flight and bats’ ability to counter DNA damage repair as a result of fast metabolism and to coexist with a large number of viruses without developing clinical diseases.

Prof. Wang’s work has been recognized internationally through various international awards, numerous invited speeches at major international conferences, and many top scientific publications, along with 5 patents. He holds a number of honorary positions and memberships and has received numerous awards such as the CSIRO Award for Excellence in Partnership in 2006 for establishing a rapid-response global research partnership that was instrumental in identifying the animal reservoir of SARS. In 2010, Prof. Wang was elected as a Fellow of Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering in recognition of his expertise in new and emerging diseases. He is also active internationally, serving on various editorial boards for publications in the areas of virology, molecular biology, biotechnology and immunotechnology. He is currently the Editor-in-Chief of the Virology Journal.



Dr. Wilder-Smith is the Director of the Travellers’ Screening and Vaccination Clinic, National University Hospital Singapore. She is a public health physician with extensive postgraduate training and experience in travel and tropical medicine and vaccine preventable diseases. 

She has worked in various countries, including China, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, New Zealand, Switzerland, and Germany. She currently holds a joint faculty position at the Department of Medicine and the Department of Community, Occupational and Family Medicine, at the National University of Singapore. She is the module coordinator for communicable diseases for the MPH course. Her research interests are meningococcal disease, travel health, dengue, tuberculosis, SARS, and other emerging diseases. 

Dr. Wilder-Smith has published more than 60 scientific papers in international peer-reviewed journals. She co-edited the book Manual of Travel Medicine & Health and Travel Medicine: Tales Behind the Science and authored the book How to Take a Medical History in Chinese. She is an editorial consultant to The Lancet, serves on the editorial board for the Journal of Travel Medicine, is an advisor to GeoSentinel, and was the editor for the World Health Organization for International Travel and Health 2007. Dr. Wilder-Smith also serves as consultant to various NGOs in Asia and is the research consultant to The Leprosy Mission. Since 2001, she has served as the Medical Director for a Community Health Project in South India.

She obtained her MD from the University of Heidelberg, Germany, in 1987, and her PhD from the University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in 2003.



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