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Coronaviruses are a family of RNA viruses that typically cause mild respiratory disease in humans. A novel coronavirus (COVID-19) was identified in December 2019.

Our experts are closely following and analyzing updates on this outbreak. The following resources will be routinely updated.

Situation Reports

Updates on the emerging novel coronavirus from the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security.

View all of the situation reports.

Read US travel and retail supply chain updates.


Center Analysis

August 5: Legislative and Regulatory Steps for a National COVID-19 Testing Strategy

July 29: Resetting Our Response: Changes Needed in the US Approach to COVID-19

July 10: Updated WHO COVID-19 Mass Gatherings Risk Assessment Tools

July 9: The Public’s Role in COVID-19 Vaccination: Planning Recommendations Informed by Design Thinking and the Social, Behavioral, and Communication Sciences

June 30: Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security's Recommendations for Improving America's Readiness for the Next Pandemic (PDF)

June 18: Developing a National Strategy for SARS-CoV-2 Serosurveys in the United States

June 15: COVID-19 Planning Guide and Self-Assessment for Higher Education Globally

June 10: Recommendations for Improving National Nurse Preparedness for Pandemic Response: Early Lessons from COVID-19

June 8: Expediting Development of Medical Countermeasures for Unknown Viral Threats: Proposal for a “Virus 201” Program in the United States

June 1: Digital Contact Tracing for Pandemic Response: Ethics and Governance Guidance

May 15: Filling in the Blanks: National Research Needs to Guide Decisions about Reopening Schools in the United States

May 06: Operational Toolkit for Businesses Considering Reopening or Expanding Operations in COVID-19

May 05: National Action Plan for Expanding and Adapting the Healthcare System for the Duration of the COVID Pandemic

April 22: Developing a National Strategy for Serology (Antibody Testing) in the United States

April 21: Recommendations for a Metropolitan COVID-19 Response—Special Area of Emphasis: Guidance on Protecting Individuals Residing in Long-Term Care Facilities

April 20: Enabling Emergency Mass Vaccination: Innovations in Manufacturing and Administration During a Pandemic

April 20: Interim Estimate of the US PPE Needs for COVID-19 (PDF)

April 17: Public Health Principles for a Phased Reopening During COVID-19: Guidance for Governors

April 10: A National Plan to Enable Comprehensive COVID-19 Case Finding and Contact Tracing in the US

April 09: Recommendations for a Metropolitan COVID-19 Response— Special Emphasis Series: Guidance on Protecting Incarcerated Individuals

April 07: A National COVID-19 Surveillance System: Achieving Containment

March 30: Recommendations for a Metropolitan COVID-19 Response

March 29: National coronavirus response: A road map to reopening

March 24: Modernizing and Expanding Outbreak Science to Support Better Decision Making During Public Health Crises: Lessons for COVID-19 and Beyond

March 18: How Should U.S. Hospitals Prepare for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)?


Fact Sheets

Coronaviruses Fact Sheet (PDF)
Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a family of RNA viruses that typically cause mild respiratory disease in humans.

SARS-CoV-2 Genetics (PDF)
A summary of findings from the latest phylogenetic research on SARS-CoV-2.

Financing for Epidemic Response Activities (PDF)
There are several major sources of money that have supported and still may support outbreak response activities during the COVID-19 pandemic.

WHO’s Role During Health Emergencies (PDF)
As the health lead for the United Nations, a primary responsibility of the World Health Organization (WHO) is to respond to natural disasters and disease outbreaks.

PCR Diagnostic Testing for SARS-CoV-2 (PDF)
Diagnostic testing for the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is undertaken using 3 approaches: whole genome sequencing, real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR), and serology.

Blame and Discrimination Attached to COVID-19 — An FAQ for US Elected Leaders and Health Officials (PDF)
When fear of disease and fear of others collide

Ventilator Stockpiling and Availability in the US (PDF)
Mechanical ventilation is a vital component of critical services for patients exhibiting severe acute respiratory failure.

Serology testing for COVID-19 (PDF)
Serology tests are blood-based tests that can be used to identify whether people have been exposed to a particular pathogen.

US Public Health Programs and Assets Being Used to Respond to the COVID-19 Pandemic (PDF)
The US emergency preparedness, response, and recovery enterprise consists of a broad range of stakeholders and assets operating at federal, state, and local levels.

Review of Mobile Application Technology to Enhance Contact Tracing Capacity for COVID-19 (PDF)
Contact tracing is a mainstay of a robust public health response. The purpose of contact tracing is to identify potentially exposed (and therefore potentially infected) individuals so that they can be quarantined before they develop symptoms, thus preventing further transmission in the community.

Vaccines in Development to Target COVID-19 Disease (PDF)
Since its emergence in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, the SARS-CoV-2 virus has caused more than 1.3 million cases and nearly 75,000 deaths globally as of April 06, 2020.1 Currently, no vaccine or proven treatment exists for this virus or any coronavirus.

Comparison of National RT-PCR Primers, Probes, and Protocols for SARS-CoV-2 Diagnostics (PDF)
This fact sheet provides a detailed comparison of several RT-PCR tests developed by various countries. Our review is limited to those listed in the World Health Organization (WHO) resource of in-house–developed molecular assays that have been used as the national test of choice in many countries and in regional reference laboratories.

Transmission Mitigation Practices in Public Transportation (PDF)
Public transportation poses serious risks for the transmission of COVID-19. Public transit vehicles like buses and trains are shared by a considerable number of people every day. 


Serology-based tests for COVID-19

This resource serves to provide up to date information on serology tests that are in development or available for use.

Molecular-based Tests for COVID-19

The diagnostic testing field for COVID-19 is rapidly evolving and improving in quality every day, with many tests focused on diagnosing patients with active viral infections. Read more about molecular-bases tests for COVID-19 here.

Working Group on Readying Populations for COVID-19 Vaccine

This working group, which is supported by the National Science Foundation-funded CONVERGE Initiative and co-chaired by the Center, brings together top experts to develop and disseminate an evidence base that supports socially and behaviorally realistic planning for a COVID-19 vaccination campaign in the United States. Read the reports developed by the working group.


Experts in the Media

Twitter Threads by Director Dr. Tom Inglesby

Dr. Tom Inglesby shares comments on Twitter on:

View all of  Dr. Tom Inglesby's Twitter threads.


August 6: Public health considerations for reopening schools for in-person learning

June 9: COVID-19 Antibody Testing: Uses, Abuses, Limitations, and the Federal Response

May 6: Center for Health Security director Dr. Tom Inglesby briefs the US Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Government Affairs

May 6: Center for Health Security senior scholar Dr. Caitlin Rivers testifies at US House of Representatives Committee on Appropriations on COVID-19 Response

March 5: Center for Health Security Senior Scholar Dr. Tara Kirk Sell Testifies at US House of Representatives Committee Hearing, “Beyond Coronaviruses: Understanding the Spread of Infectious Diseases and Mobilizing Innovative Solutions”

March 3: Center for Health Security director Dr. Tom Inglesby testifies at US House of Representatives Committee on Homeland Security on COVID-19

February 5: Center for Health Security expert Dr. Jennifer Nuzzo testifies at first open congressional hearing on 2019-nCoV


Health Security Special Online Issue on Coronaviruses

10 relevant articles from Health Security on coronaviruses, outbreak preparedness and response, infection control, and public health policy are freely available to facilitate the conversation around health security.



Visit the Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center where our experts help to advance understanding of the virus, inform the public, and brief policymakers in order to guide a response, improve care, and save lives.

Clinicians' Biosecurity News 02/27/2020: What US Hospitals Should Do Now to Prepare for a COVID-19 Pandemic

Clinicians' Biosecurity News 03/13/2020: Get Ready for a 1918-like Scenario

Clinicians' Biosecurity News 03/30/2020: The Increasing Demand for Critical Care Beds—Recommendations for Bridging the RN Staffing Gap

Health Security: Strategies to Inform Allocation of Stockpiled Ventilators to Healthcare Facilities During a Pandemic

COVID-19 Personal preparedness infographic (PDF)


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