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Monkeypox
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Monkeypox

Monkeypox is a viral zoonotic disease historically considered an emerging public health threat, with sporadic outbreaks largely limited to West and Central Africa. The geographic distribution and frequency of cases has gradually increased in recent decades, but current case counts since April 2022 have risen quickly to tens of thousands of cases in nearly 100 countries and territories around the world. The United States has recorded the greatest proportion of cases among these locations, most of which have never previously reported monkeypox cases. Recognizing the risks presented by the disease and ongoing response needs, the WHO Director-General declared the monkeypox outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) on July 23, 2022, and the United States declared a Public Health Emergency (PHE) on August 4, 2022.

The Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security is providing regular updates through its Outbreak Alerts, synthesizing the most recent developments about monkeypox outbreaks nationally and globally.

  

Quick Resources

Center for Health Security Monkeypox Fact Sheet (last updated May 2022)
CDC Monkeypox Page

WHO Monkeypox Outbreak 2022 Page
WHO IHR Emergency Committee Meetings
Monkeypox: experts give virus variants new names

 

Monkeypox Outbreak Case Data

For the most recent United States case data, visit CDC’s 2022 US Map & Case Count
For the most recent global case data, visit WHO’s Health Emergency Dashboard and 2022 Monkeypox Outbreak: Global Trends

 

Further Monkeypox Readings

Selected peer-reviewed literature, broadly covering monkeypox epidemiology, genomic variability, asymptomatic transmission, vaccination, and treatment:

  • Alakunle E, Moens U, Nchinda G, Okeke MI. Monkeypox virus in Nigeria: infection biology, epidemiology, and evolution. Viruses. 2020;12(11):1257. doi:10.3390/v12111257
     
  • Bunge EM, Hoet B, Chen L, et al. The changing epidemiology of human monkeypox—A potential threat? A systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2022;16(2):e0010141. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0010141
     
  • Guagliardo SAJ, Monroe B, Moundjoa C, et al. Asymptomatic Orthopoxvirus Circulation in Humans in the Wake of a Monkeypox Outbreak among Chimpanzees in Cameroon. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020;102(1):206-212. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.19-0467
     
  • Kugelman JR, Johnston SC, Mulembakani PM, et al. Genomic variability of monkeypox virus among humans, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(2):232-239. doi:10.3201/eid2002.130118
     
  • McCollum AM, Damon IK. Human Monkeypox. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;58(2):260-267. doi:10.1093/cid/cit703
     
  • Nolen LD, Osadebe L, Katomba J, et al. Extended Human-to-Human Transmission during a Monkeypox Outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(6):1014-1021. doi:10.3201/eid2206.150579
     
  • Patrono LV, Pléh K, Samuni L, et al. Monkeypox virus emergence in wild chimpanzees reveals distinct clinical outcomes and viral diversity. Nat Microbiol. 2020;5(7):955-965. doi:10.1038/s41564-020-0706-0
     
  • Petersen E, Kantele A, Koopmans M, et al. Human Monkeypox. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2019;33(4):1027-1043. doi:10.1016/j.idc.2019.03.001
     
  • Pfeiffer JA, Collingwood A, Rider LE, et al. High-Contact Object and Surface Contamination in a Household of Persons with Monkeypox Virus Infection — Utah, June 2022. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. ePub: 19 August 2022. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm7134e1
     
  • Philpott D, Hughes CM, Alroy KA, et al. Epidemiologic and Clinical Characteristics of Monkeypox Cases — United States, May 17–July 22, 2022. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2022;71:1018-1022. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm7132e3
     
  • Russo AT, Berhanu A, Bigger CB, et al. Co-administration of tecovirimat and ACAM2000™ in non-human primates: Effect of tecovirimat treatment on ACAM2000 immunogenicity and efficacy versus lethal monkeypox virus challenge. Vaccine. 2020;38(3):644-654. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.10.049
     
  • Simpson K, Heymann D, Brown CS, et al. Human monkeypox—After 40 years, an unintended consequence of smallpox eradication. Vaccine. 2020;38(33):5077-5081. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.04.062
     
  • Thornhill JP, Barkati S, Walmsley S, et al. Monkeypox Virus Infection in Humans across 16 Countries — April–June 2022. N Engl J Med. 2022;387:679-691. doi:10.1056/nejmoa2207323
     
  • Ferré VM, Bachelard A, Zaidi M, et al. Detection of Monkeypox Virus in Anorectal Swabs From Asymptomatic Men Who Have Sex With Men in a Sexually Transmitted Infection Screening Program in Paris, France. Ann Intern Med. Published August 16, 2022. Accessed August 24, 2022. doi:10.7326/M22-2183
 

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