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Monkeypox
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Monkeypox

Monkeypox is a rare viral infection that is thought to typically spread from close person-to-person contact through large respiratory droplets, direct contact with skin lesions or bodily fluids, or indirect contact via contaminated clothing or linens. Symptoms include fever and chills, headache, muscle aches, swollen lymph nodes, and a rash similar to chickenpox that can spread throughout the body and notably on the palms of the hands. In May 2022, public health experts worldwide are on alert over several outbreaks of confirmed and suspected monkeypox across multiple countries.

The Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security will be analyzing and providing updates, as needed, on the monkeypox outbreaks that have been identified.

  

This page was last updated May 20, 2022.

 

Monkeypox Outbreak Epi Updates

For the most up-to-date stats, visit Confirmed/Suspected cases of Monkeypox by GlobalHealth.

 

Select Readings on Monkeypox

The following list includes select scientific literature on monkeypox. The articles cover a range of issues, including epidemiology, genomic variability, asymptomatic transmission, and treatment. Additional resources from the Center, the US CDC, and the WHO are listed at the bottom.

  • Alakunle E, Moens U, Nchinda G, Okeke MI. Monkeypox virus in Nigeria: infection biology, epidemiology, and evolution. Viruses. 2020;12(11):1257. doi:10.3390/v12111257
     
  • Bunge EM, Hoet B, Chen L, et al. The changing epidemiology of human monkeypox—A potential threat? A systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2022;16(2):e0010141. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0010141
     
  • Guagliardo SAJ, Monroe B, Moundjoa C, et al. Asymptomatic Orthopoxvirus Circulation in Humans in the Wake of a Monkeypox Outbreak among Chimpanzees in Cameroon. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020;102(1):206-212. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.19-0467
     
  • Kugelman JR, Johnston SC, Mulembakani PM, et al. Genomic variability of monkeypox virus among humans, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(2):232-239. doi:10.3201/eid2002.130118
     
  • McCollum AM, Damon IK. Human Monkeypox. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;58(2):260-267. doi:10.1093/cid/cit703
     
  • Nolen LD, Osadebe L, Katomba J, et al. Extended Human-to-Human Transmission during a Monkeypox Outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(6):1014-1021. doi:10.3201/eid2206.150579
     
  • Patrono LV, Pléh K, Samuni L, et al. Monkeypox virus emergence in wild chimpanzees reveals distinct clinical outcomes and viral diversity. Nat Microbiol. 2020;5(7):955-965. doi:10.1038/s41564-020-0706-0
     
  • Petersen E, Kantele A, Koopmans M, et al. Human Monkeypox. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2019;33(4):1027-1043. doi:10.1016/j.idc.2019.03.001
     
  • Russo AT, Berhanu A, Bigger CB, et al. Co-administration of tecovirimat and ACAM2000™ in non-human primates: Effect of tecovirimat treatment on ACAM2000 immunogenicity and efficacy versus lethal monkeypox virus challenge. Vaccine. 2020;38(3):644-654. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.10.049
     
  • Simpson K, Heymann D, Brown CS, et al. Human monkeypox—After 40 years, an unintended consequence of smallpox eradication. Vaccine. 2020;38(33):5077-5081. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.04.062

Other Resources

Center for Health Security Monkeypox Fact Sheet
CDC Monkeypox Page
WHO Monkeypox Epidemiology, Preparedness and Response Course
WHO Monkeypox Fact Sheet

 

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